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Posted by / 24-Oct-2020 22:58

Circa 50 carbon 14 dating

A grill was convenient for flat meats, a spit for larger cuts.

Roasting, the application of direct heat at close proximity, was appropriate for a cold, moist meat such as pork because the open fire would warm and dry.

The texture of raw meat is a kindk of slick, resistant mushiness.

The fluid release is at its maximum when the meat is only lightly cooked, or done 'rare.' As the temperature increases and the meat dries out, physical change gives way to chemical change, and to the development of armo as cell molecules break apart and recombine with each other to form new molecules that not only smell meaty, but also fruity and floral, nutty and grassy (esters, ketones, aldehydes)...

Medieval physicists--or physicians--told their contemporaries that cooking added either warmth and moisture or warmth and dryness to their foodstuff that was cooked: the cook chose his cooking method according to the inherent nature of the foodstuff and any need he had to correct this nature.

F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere. 86-87) [Medieval France] "Modern physicists tell us that cooking changes the chemical characteristics of a substance.

154-155) [Ancient Rome] "Already during the last two centuries before Christ, meat began to appear with increasing frequency in the homes of Rome's wealthier citizens...

That medieval French cooks too this warning seriously and rarely roasted their beef is evident in the large stocks of beef bouillon that our recipes imply was always on hand for ready use in other preparations." ---Early French Cookery: Sources, History, Original Recipes and Modern Adaptations, D.

If the ignorant cook were to subject beef to a roasting, so further drying its already dry nature, this could be quite dangerous to the unfortunate person who was to eat it later, and could even put him or her at risk of an attack of melancholia or a bilous upset.

167 Coole endiffe, radish, new egs rosted reare, And late-prest cheese; which earthen dishes beare. Ovid Baucis & Philemon in Fables 159 New-laid Eggs, which Baucis busie Care Turn'd by a gentle Fire, and roasted rear. Recipes for hours-long braising or stewing were developed for mature animals with substantially cross-linked collagen that took a long time to dissolve into gelatin.

Fat coats and lubricates meat fibers during cooking, and stimulates the flow of saliva and creates the sensation of juiciness no matter hwo dry the meat fibers themselves have become.

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Unfortunately, these two aims conflict with each other... The method must be tailored to the meat's toughness.